Literature Review

There is minimal or absent scientific literature on sex in pregnancy, labour, and postpartum with regards to:

  • sexual & gender minorities: lesbian, bisexual, gay, intersex, asexual, two-spirited, queer, trans men, nonbinary/folks across the gender spectrum, kinky, polyamorous families, and sex workers

  • black (caribbean, african), indigenous, south asian, east asian, middle eastern, eastern european, south american populations

  • data collection on past sexual and physical trauma or relationship violence/abuse in participants histories

  • impoverished/low-income families and individuals

  • single-parent households

Abdool, Z., Thakar, R., & Sultan, A. H. (2009). Postpartum female sexual function. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 145(2), 133-137. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2009.04.014.

 

Adams, L. G., Harper, A. J., Johnson, E. P., & Cobia, D. C. (2006). New mothers and sexual intimacy: An existential framework for counseling. The Family Journal, 14(4), 424-429.

 

Ahlborg, T., Dahlӧf, L-G., & Hallberg, L. R-M. (2005). Quality of the Intimate and Sexual Relationship in First-Time Parents Six Months After Delivery. The Journal of Sex Research, 42(2), 167-174.

 

Ahlborg, T., & Hansson, M. (2011). Quality of the intimate and sexual relationship in first-time parents– A longitudinal study. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 3(1), 21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2011.10.002.

 

Ahlborg, T., Rudeblad, K., Linnér, S., & Linton, S. (2008). Sensual and sexual marital contentment in parents of small children—A follow-up study when the first child is four years old. Journal of sex research, 45(3), 295-304.

 

Ahlborg, T., & Strandmark, M. (2006). Factors influencing the quality of intimate relationships six months after delivery—First-time parents' own views and coping strategies. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 27(3), 163-172.

 

Ahlborg, T., & Strandmark, M. (2001). The baby was the focus of attention–first‐time parents’ experiences of their intimate relationship. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 15(4), 318-325.

 

Ahmed, M. R., Madny, E. H., & Sayed Ahmed, W. A. (2014). Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction during pregnancy among Egyptian women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 40(4), 1023-1029.

 

Anders, S. M., Hipp, L. E., & Kane Low, L. (2013). Exploring Co‐Parent Experiences of Sexuality in the First 3 Months after Birth. The journal of sexual medicine, 10(8), 1988-1999.

 

Aslan, G., Aslan, D., Kızılyar, A., Ispahi, C., & Esen, A. (2005). A prospective analysis of sexual functions during pregnancy. International journal of impotence research, 17(2), 154-157.

 

Avery, M. D., Duckett, L., & Frantzich, C. R. (2000). The experience of sexuality during breastfeeding among primiparous women. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 45(3), 227-237.

 

Bailey, N., Brown, G., Letherby, G., & Wilson, C. (2002). “The Baby Brigade” Teenage Mothers and Sexuality. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 4(1), 101-110.

 

Barrett, G., Pendry, E., Peacock, J., Victor, C., Thakar, R., & Manyonda, I. (2000). Women’s sexual health after childbirth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecologists, 107(2), 186-195.

 

Barrett, G., Peacock, J., Victor, C. R., & Manyonda, I. (2005). Cesarean section and postnatal sexual health. Birth, 32(4), 306-311.

 

Bartellas, E., Crane, J. M., Daley, M., Bennett, K. A., & Hutchens, D. (2000). Sexuality and sexual activity in pregnancy. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107(8), 964-968.

Beveridge, J., Vannier, S., & Rosen, N. O. (2017). Fear-based reasons for not engaging in sexual activity during pregnancy: Associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2017.1312334

 

Bitzer, J., & Alder, J. (2000). Sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Journal of sex education and therapy, 25(1), 49-58.

 

Brtnicka, H., Weiss, P., & Zverina, J. (2009). Human sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Bratisl Lek Listy, 110(7), 427-31.

 

Brubaker, L., Handa, V. L., Bradley, C. S., Connolly, A., Moalli, P., Brown, M. B., & Weber, A. (2008). Sexual function 6 months after first delivery. Obstetrics and gynecology, 111(5), 1040.

 

Cai, L., Zhang, B., Lin, H., Xing, W., & Chen, J. (2014). Does vaginal delivery affect postnatal coitus?. International journal of impotence research, 26(1), 24-27.

 

Cappell, J., Macdonald, T. K., & Pukall C. F. (2016). For new mothers, the relationship matters: Relationship characteristics and postpartum sexuality. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 25(2), 126-137. doi: 10.3138/cjhs.252-A5.

 

Chang, S. R., Chang, T. C., Chen, K. H., & Lin, H. H. (2010). Sexual function in women 3 days and 6 weeks after childbirth: a prospective longitudinal study using the Taiwan version of the Female Sexual Function Index. The journal of sexual medicine, 7(12), 3946-3956. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01752.x.

 

Chivers, M. L., Pittini, R., Grigoriadis, S., Villegas, L., & Ross, L. E. (2011). The relationship between sexual functioning and depressive symptomatology in postpartum women: A pilot study. The journal of sexual medicine, 8(3), 792-799.

 

Connolly, A., Thorp, J., & Pahel, L. (2005). Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function: a longitudinal prospective study. International Urogynecology Journal, 16(4), 263-267.

 

Convery, K. M., & Spatz, D. L. (2009). Sexuality & breastfeeding: what do you know?. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 34(4), 218-223.

 

De Judicibus, M. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2002). Psychological factors and the sexuality of pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of sex research, 39(2), 94-103.

 

Desgrées-du-Loû, A., & Brou, H. (2005). Resumption of sexual relations following childbirth: Norms, practices and reproductive health issues in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Reproductive Health Matters, 13(25), 155-163. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(05)25167-4.

 

Dixon, M., Booth, N., & Powell, R. (2000). Sex and relationships following childbirth: a first report from general practice of 131 couples. Br J Gen Pract, 50(452), 223-224.

 

Erol, B., Sanli, O., Korkmaz, D., Seyhan, A., Akman, T., & Kadioglu, A. (2007). A cross‐sectional study of female sexual function and dysfunction during pregnancy. The journal of sexual medicine, 4(5), 1381-1387.

 

Eryilmaz, G., Ege, E., & Zincir, H. (2004). Factors affecting sexual life during pregnancy in eastern Turkey. Gynecologic and obstetric investigation, 57(2), 103-108.

 

Fahs, B., & Swank, E. (2011). Social Identities as Predictors of Women’s Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Activity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(5), 903-914. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9681-5.

 

Friedman, A., Weinberg, H., & Pines, A. M. (1998). Sexuality and motherhood: Mutually exclusive in perception of women. Sex Roles, 38(9), 781-800.

 

Friedman, M. (2015). Unpacking MILF: Exploring motherhood, sexuality and feminism. Atlantis: Critical Studies in Gender, Culture & Social Justice, 36(2), 49-60.

 

Fok, W. Y., Chan, L. Y. S., & Yuen, P. M. (2005). Sexual behavior and activity in Chinese pregnant women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 84(10), 934-938.

 

Foux, R. (2008). Sex education in pregnancy: does it exist? A literature review. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 23(3), 271-277.

Glowacka, M., Rosen, N. O., Chorney, J., Snelgrove-Clarke, E., & George, R. (2014) Predictors and prevalence of genito-pelvic pain in pregnancy and postpartum: The prospective impact of fear avoidance. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11, 3021-3034. DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12675

 

Gökyildiz, Ş., & Beji, N. K. (2005). The effects of pregnancy on sexual life. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 31(3), 201-215.

 

Gray, P. B., Reece, J-A., Coore-Desai, C., Dinnall-Johnson, T., Pellington, S., & Samms-Vaughan, M. (2015). Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(1), 44. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0475-6.

 

Gray, P. B., Garcia, J. R., Crosier, B. S., & Fisher, H. E. (2015). Dating and sexual behavior among single parents of young children in the United States. The Journal of Sex Research, 52(2), 121-128.

 

Gungor, S., Baser, I., Ceyhan, S., Karasahin, E., & Acikel, C. H. (2007). Mode of delivery and subsequent long-term sexual function of primiparous women. International journal of impotence research, 19(4), 358-365.

 

Guo, B., & Huang, J. (2005). Marital and sexual satisfaction in Chinese families: Exploring the moderating effects. Journal of sex & marital therapy, 31(1), 21-29.

 

Herbenick, D., Mullinax, M., & Mark, K. (2014). Sexual desire discrepancy as a feature, not a bug, of long‐term relationships: Women's self‐reported strategies for modulating sexual desire. The journal of sexual medicine, 11(9), 2196-2206.

 

Hicks, T. L., Goodall, S. F., Quattrone, E. M., & Lydon‐Rochelle, M. T. (2004). Postpartum sexual functioning and method of delivery: summary of the evidence. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 49(5), 430-436.

 

Hipp, L., Low, L.K., & Anders, S. M. (2012). Exploring women’s postpartum sexuality: Social, Psychological, Relationship, and Birth-Related Contextual Factors. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(9), 2330-2341. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02804.x

 

Hosseini, L., Iran-Pour, E., & Safarinejad, M. R. (2012). Sexual function of primiparous women after elective cesarean section and normal vaginal delivery. Urology journal, 9(2), 498.

 

Huang, Y. C., & Mathers, N. J. (2006). A comparison of sexual satisfaction and post‐natal depression in the UK and Taiwan. International Nursing Review, 53(3), 197-204.

 

Huntley, R. (2000). Sexing the belly: an exploration of sex and the pregnant body. Sexualities, 3(3), 347-362.

 

Jawed‐Wessel, S., Schick, V., & Herbenick, D. (2013). The Sexual Function Questionnaire's Medical Impact Scale (SFQ‐MIS): Validation Among a Sample of First‐time Mothers. The journal of sexual medicine, 10(11), 2715-2722. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12307.

 

Johnson, C. E. (2011). Sexual health during pregnancy and the postpartum (CME). The journal of sexual medicine, 8(5), 1267-1284.

 

Khajehei, M., Doherty, M., Tilley, P. J., & Sauer, K. (2015). Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in postpartum Australian women. The journal of sexual medicine, 12(6), 1415-1426.

 

Klein, K., Worda, C., Leipold, H., Gruber, C., Husslein, P., & Wenzl, R. (2009). Does the mode of delivery influence sexual function after childbirth?. Journal of Women's Health, 18(8), 1227-1231.

 

LaMarre, A. K., Paterson, L. Q., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2003). Breastfeeding and postpartum maternal sexual functioning: a review. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 12(3/4), 151.

 

Lee, J. T. (2002). The meaning of sexual satisfaction in pregnant Taiwanese women. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 47(4), 278-286. doi: 10.1016/S1526-9523(02)00264-7.

 

Leeman, L. M., & Rogers, R. G. (2012). Sex after childbirth: postpartum sexual function. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119(3), 647-655. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182479611.

 

Leite, A. P. L., Campos, A. A. S., Dias, A. R. C., Amed, A. M., De Souza, E., & Camano, L. (2009). Prevalence of sexual dysfunction during pregnancy. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, 55(5), 563-568.

 

Light, A. D., Obedin-Maliver, J., Sevelius, J. M., & Kerns, J. L. (2014). Transgender men who experienced pregnancy after female-to-male gender transitioning. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(6), 1120-1127.

 

Liu, H. L., Hsu, P., & Chen, K. H. (2013). Sexual activity during pregnancy in Taiwan: A qualitative study. Sexual medicine, 1(2), 54-61. doi: 10.1002/sm2.13.

 

Lurie, S., Aizenberg, M., Sulema, V., Boaz, M., Kovo, M., Golan, A., & Sadan, O. (2013). Sexual function after childbirth by the mode of delivery: a prospective study. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 288(4), 785-792.

 

Maas, M.K., McDaniel, B. T., Feinberg, M. E., & Jones, D. E. (2015). Division of Labour and Multiple Domains of Sexual Satisfaction Among First-Time Parents. The Journal of Family Issues, 1-24. doi: 10.1177/0192513X15604343.

 

MacAdam, R., Huuva, E., & Berterӧ, C. (2011). Fathers’ experiences after having a child: sexuality becomes tailored according to circumstances. Midwifery, 27(5), 149-155. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2009.12.007.

 

MacDonald, T., Noel-Weiss, J., West, D., Walks, M., Biener, M., Kibbe, A., & Myler, E. (2016). Transmasculine individuals’ experiences with lactation, chestfeeding, and gender identity: a qualitative study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 16(1), 106.

 

Millheiser, L. (2012). Female sexual function during pregnancy and postpartum. The journal of sexual medicine, 9(2), 635-636.

 

Moel, J. E., Buttner, M. M., O’Hara, M. W., Stuart, S., & Gorman, L. (2010). Sexual function in the postpartum period: effects of maternal depression and interpersonal psychotherapy treatment. Archives of women's mental health, 13(6), 495-504.

 

Montemurro, B., & Siefken, J. M. (2012). MILFS and Matrons: Images and Realities of Mothers’ Sexuality. Sexuality & Culture, 16(4), 366-388. doi: 10.1007/s12119-012-9129-2.

 

Morof, D., Barrett, G., Peacock, J., Victor, C. R., & Manyonda, I. (2003). Postnatal depression and sexual health after childbirth. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 102(6), 1318-1325.

 

Moscrop, A. (2012). Can sex during pregnancy cause a miscarriage? A concise history of not knowing. The British Journal of General Practice, 62(597), 308-310. doi: 10.3399/bjgp12X636164.

 

Mous, M., Muller, S. A., & De Leeuw, J. W. (2008). Long‐term effects of anal sphincter rupture during vaginal delivery: Faecal incontinence and sexual complaints. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 115(2), 234-238.

Muise, A., Kim, J. J., Impett, E. A., & Rosen, N. O.,  (2017). Understanding when a partner is not in the mood: Sexual communal motivation in couples transitioning to parenthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 1993-2006.DOI 10.1007/s10508-016-0920-2 ***VIDEO #4 “UNDERSTANDING SEXUAL NEEDS”

 

Naim, M., & Bhutto, E. (2000). Sexuality during pregnancy in Pakistani women. Journal-Pakistan Medical Association, 50(1), 38-43.

 

Nakić Radoš, S., Soljačić Vraneš, H., & Šunjić, M. (2015). Sexuality during pregnancy: what is important for sexual satisfaction in expectant fathers?. Journal of sex & marital therapy, 41(3), 282-293.

 

Oliver, K. (2010). Motherhood, Sexuality, and Pregnant Embodiment: Twenty‐Five Years of Gestation. Hypatia, 25(4), 760-777.

 

Olsson, A., Robertson, E., Björklund, A., & Nissen, E. (2010). Fatherhood in focus, sexual activity can wait: new fathers’ experience about sexual life after childbirth. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 24(4), 716-725.

 

Olsson, A., Lundqvist, M., Faxelid, E., & Nissen, E. (2005). Women's thoughts about sexual life after childbirth: focus group discussions with women after childbirth. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19(4), 381-387.

 

Onah, H. E., Iloabachie, G. C., Obi, S. N., Ezugwu, F. O., & Eze, J. N. (2002). Nigerian male sexual activity during pregnancy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 76(2), 219-223.

 

Oboro, V. O., & Tabowei, T. O. (2002). Sexual function after childbirth in Nigerian women. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 78(3), 249-250.

 

Orji, E. O., Ogunlola, I. O., & Fasubaa, O. B. (2002). Sexuality among pregnant women in South West Nigeria. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 22(2), 166-168.

 

Pacey, S. (2004). Couples and the first baby: Responding to new parents' sexual and relationship problems. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 19(3), 223-246.

 

Pastore, L., Owens, A., & Raymond, C. (2007). Postpartum sexuality concerns among first‐time parents from one US academic hospital. The journal of sexual medicine, 4(1), 115-123.

 

Pauleta, J. R., Pereira, N. M., & Graça, L. M. (2010). Sexuality during pregnancy. The journal of sexual medicine, 7(1pt1), 136-142.

 

Pauls, R. N., Occhino, J. A., & Drythout, V. L. (2008). Effects of Pregnancy on Female Sexual Function and Body Image: A Prospective Study. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(8), 1915-1922. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00884.x

 

Polomeno, V. (1999). Sex and babies: Pregnant couples' postnatal sexual concerns. The Journal of perinatal education, 8(4), 9-18.

 

Polomeno, V. (2000). Sex and pregnancy: A perinatal educator's guide. The Journal of perinatal education, 9(4), 15-27.

 

Rådestad, I., Olsson, A., Nissen, E., & Rubertsson, C. (2008). Tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, and rectum and first sexual intercourse after childbirth: A nationwide follow‐up. Birth, 35(2), 98-106.

 

Rallis, S., Skouteris, H., Wertheim, E. H., & Paxton, S. J. (2007). Predictors of body image during the first year postpartum: A prospective study. Women & health, 45(1), 87-104.

Rosen, N. O., Bailey, K., & Muise, A. (2017). Degree and direction of sexual desire discrepancy are linked to sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples transitioning to parenthood. The Journal of Sex Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1321732  ***VIDEO #3 “DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL INTEREST” 

Rosen, N. O., Mooney, K., & Muise, A. (2016). Dyadic empathy predicts sexual and relationship wellbeing in couples transitioning to parenthood. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2016.1208698 ***VIDEO #2: SEEING THE OTHER SIDE

 

Rosen, N. O. & Pukall, C. (2016). Comparing the prevalence, risk factors and repercussions of postpartum genito-pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Sexual Medicine Reviews. 4(2), 126-135. DOI: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2015.12.003

Rowland, M., Foxcroft, L., Hopman, W. M., & Patel, R. (2005). Breastfeeding and sexuality immediately post partum. Canadian Family Physician, 51(10), 1366-1367.

 

Safarinejad, M. R., Kolahi, A. A., & Hosseini, L. (2009). The effect of the mode of delivery on the quality of life, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction in primiparous women and their husbands. The journal of sexual medicine, 6(6), 1645-1667.

 

Schlagintweit, H. E., Bailey, K., & Rosen, N. O. (2016). A New Baby in the Bedroom: Frequency and Severity of Postpartum Sexual Concerns and Their Associations With Relationship Satisfaction in New Parent Couples. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(10), 1455-1465.

 

Senkumwong, N., Chaovisitsaree, S., Rugpao, S., Chandrawongse, W., & Yanunto, S. (2006). The changes of sexuality in Thai women during pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai, 89(4), 124-9.

 

Serati, M., Salvatore, S., Siesto, G., Cattoni, E., Zanirato, M., Khullar, V., ... & Bolis, P. (2010). Female sexual function during pregnancy and after childbirth. The journal of sexual medicine, 7(8), 2782-2790. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01893.x.

 

Shojaa, M., Jouybari, L., & Sanagoo, A. (2009). The sexual activity during pregnancy among a group of Iranian women. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 279(3), 353-356. doi: 10.1007/s00404-008-0735-z.

 

Signorello, L. B., Harlow, B. L., Chekos, A. K., & Repke, J. T. (2001). Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: a retrospective cohort study of primiparous women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 184(5), 881-890.

 

Stammler-Safar, M., Ott J., Weber, S., & Krampl E. (2010). Sexual behaviour of women with twin pregnancies [Abstract]. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 13(4), 383-388.

 

Tally, M. (2006). “She doesn't let age define her”: Sexuality and motherhood in recent “middle-aged chick flicks” Sexuality & Culture, 10(2), 33.

 

Traina, C. L. (2000). Maternal experience and the boundaries of Christian sexual ethics. Signs: journal of women in culture and society, 25(2), 369-405.

 

Trice-Black, S. (2010). Perceptions of Women’s Sexuality Within the Context of Motherhood. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 18(2), 154-162.

 

Trutnovsky, G., Haas, J., Lang, U., & Petru, E. (2006). Women's perception of sexuality during pregnancy and after birth. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 46(4), 282-287.

 

Uwapusitanon, W., & Choobun, T. (2004). Sexuality and sexual activity in pregnancy. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand= Chotmaihet thangphaet, 87, S45-9.

 

Van Brummen, H. J., Bruinse, H. W., Van de Pol, G., Heintz, A. P. M., & Van der Vaart, C. H. (2006). Which factors determine the sexual function 1 year after childbirth?. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 113(8), 914-918.

Vannier, S. A., Adare, K. E., & Rosen, N. O. (in press). Is it me or you? First-time mothers’ attributions for postpartum sexual concerns are associated with sexual and relationship satisfaction in the transition to parenthood.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. ***VIDEO #5 “EXPLAINING SEXUAL CHANGES”…NOTE THAT THIS PAPER IS NOT PUBLISHED YET 

Vannier, S. & Rosen, N. O. (2017). Sexual distress and sexual problems in pregnancy: Associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.12.239

 

Von Sydow, K. (1999). Sexuality during pregnancy and after childbirth: a metacontent analysis of 59 studies. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47(1), 27-49.

 

Von Sydow, K., Ullmeyer, M., & Happ, N. (2001). Sexual activity during pregnancy and after childbirth: results from the Sexual Preferences Questionnaire. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 22(1), 29-40.

 

Von Sydow, K. (2002). Sexual enjoyment and orgasm postpartum: Sex differences and perceptual accuracy concerning partners' sexual experience. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 23(3), 147-155.

 

Williamson, M., McVeigh, C., & Baafi, M. (2008). An Australian perspective of fatherhood and sexuality. Midwifery, 24(1), 99-107.

 

Witting, K., Santtila, P., Alanko, K., Harlaar, N., Jern, P., Johansson, A., Von Der Pahlen, B., Varjonen, M., Ålgars, M., & Sandnabba, N. K. (2008). Female sexual function and its associations with number of children, pregnancy, and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 34(2), 89-106. doi: 10.1080/00926230701636163.

 

Woranitat, W., & Taneepanichskul, S. (2007). Sexual function during the postpartum period. Journal-Medical Association of Thailand, 90(9), 1744.

 

Woolhouse, H., McDonald, E., & Brown, S. (2012). Women’s experiences of sex and intimacy after childbirth: making the adjustment to motherhood. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecologists, 33(4), 185-190. doi: 10.3109/016748X.2012.720314

 

Yee, L. M., Kaimal, A. J., Nakagawa, S., Houston, K., & Kuppermann, M. (2013). Predictors of postpartum sexual activity and function in a diverse population of women. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 58(6), 654-661.

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